(dpa) - Russia's top army general vowed to take military action if NATO expands eastward to include its former Soviet neighbours Georgia and Ukraine, news agency Interfax reported Friday.
"Russia will take unambiguous action toward ensuring its interests along its borders," General Yuri Baluyevsky was quoted as saying.
"These will not only be military steps, but also steps of a different character," he said.
Moscow lobbied hard to head off Georgia and Ukraine's ambition for membership at last month's NATO summit in Bucharest, but alliance leaders intend to review their bid in December.
Russia views NATO's willingness to enlarge eastward as the continuation of the Western Cold War containment policy and the spread of a foreign military bloc along its border.