The coinage of Karabakh khanate (PHOTO)

The coinage of Karabakh khanate (PHOTO)

The death of Nadir the founder of Turkic dynasty of Afsharids, has strengthened the process of dissolution of their statehood and the emergence of khanates - (khanate is a small form of the shah authority) independent feudal state formations in the second part of the eighteenth century in Azerbaijan and Iran. One of the most powerful among them was Karabakh khanate. Putting up a strong resistance to rival khanates it even survived the furious Agha Mohammad-khan Qajars invasion, who met his death here (the power of the khanate increased insomuch that the court nobility has advised Ibrahim-khan the son of Panakh-khan, founder of the khanate, to proclaim himself a shah).

The coinage of Karabakh khanate plays a special role in the Azerbaijani numismatics. Not only because of the striking the original silver coins known in the numismatic literature as “panabadi” (derives from “panakhabadi”, - of Panakhabad) in this khanate, to be precise in Panakhabad the city named after its founder, the fortress city, the capital founded by Panakh-khan (1748-1758/9). It was a unique case in the coinage history, when the coins got its name after the issuer city.

There is no precise information on when these coins started to be stamped. Author of the chronicles “On the political condition of the Karabakh Khanate in the years of 1745-1805” Ahmedbek Javanshir relates this event to the end of construction of the city in 1754. Noting this date as a foundation date of Panakhabad fortress, Ahmedbek, probably meant 1100th year of hegira which coincides with 1756/7th year of the Gregorian calendar, which is also referred by other chroniclers. Extant samples of panabadi are dated at 1201-1787. Judging from this, the coins were emitted till 1237-1822, till the collapse of the khanate.

Karabakh khanate, anonymous, 1199 AH, abbasi, silver

Afsharids, Shakhrukh, (1748-1796)

Ganja, 1163 AH, abbasi, silver

On the front side of panabadi is a distorted couplet on Farsi: “In the name of Sahib az-Zaman (“The Lord of the Time” – the 12th Shiite imam Muhammad Mahdi) gold and silver like a sun and moon became a coin”. On the other side, in the middle, in the buta-like cartouche is the place of issue: “zarb-i Panakhabad”, stamp of Panakhabad, above the cartouche is the plea: “Oh, Allah!”, under the cartouche is the date of issue 1201-1787. As we see, panabadis were issued anonymously, without eponyms, like all currencies of the greater region, the region that was deprived of hereditary shah authority after the collapse of Afsharids.

The distinction of this new, a little prolonged monetary unit, beside all, is that its set weight differed sharply from the common weight standard of abbasi monetary unit that served as main unit of monetary system of Azerbaijan and Iran since its introduction during the Safavid Emperor Abbas I (1587-1629). Nominal value of abbasi was equal to 200 copper dinars, but over time its weight decreased and by the middle of eighteenth century it was 2,6-3,0 gr. Average weight of 23 panabadi items stored in the Department of Numismatics and Epigraphy of the National Museum of History of Azerbaijani equals 5,2 gr, that is equivalent to 28 nokhuds or 7 dangas that makes 5,46 gr. It is obvious that weight of panabadi is twice of the weight of abbasi. In this connection, the determination of nominal value of panabadi is of huge interest. According to Ahmed bek Javanshir panabadi was equal (in parity ratio) to Russian coin weighing 5,0 gr worth of 15 kopeika. Taking into consideration that almost identic weight of two abbasi with nominal value 2 х 200 = 400 copper dinars, thus the panabadi’s nominal value with overestimated weight (5,46 gr) should have been a bit higher than 400 dinars.

Ganja Khanate, anonymous, Ganja 1189 AH, abbasi, silver

Not having enough written data, it might be stated a priory that, its worth was as twice as much of the nominal value of two abbasi and its worth was equal to approximately 500 copper dinars. It is also possible that at the time of panabadis introduction there was forcible rate overestimation, as it usually was experienced by medieval states upon introduction of new monetary units or during the changes of outdated monetary systems.

Whatever the case, Panakh khans monetary reform was not only peculiar and unique, but it symbolized, a strengthened social and economic potential of the Karabakh khanate, in addition to prestigious intentions of the initiator.

In this regard, Mirza Adigozal bek attaches attention in his book “Karabakhname” to the aphorism of the prominent medieval Azerbaijani politico-military figure Haji Chelebi Shekinsky (1743-1755) who stated after defeat that: “Untill now Panakh khan was bullion, we came and made him a coin and went back” (this saying has other versions like: “Panakh Khan was a merely khan, we came and fight him and got nothing. We made him shah and we went back” (Mirza Jamal Javanshir); and “Panakhali khan declared himself a shah, and I by my defeat confirmed his khanate” (Ahmed bek Javanshir). Prolonged coins with inscriptions on front side “Oh, Sahib az-Zaman” and “zarb-i-Panakhabad” on reverse side were stamped in Panakhabad along with panabadis. According to findings, abbasis - silver coins abbasi of neighboring khanates (Ganja, Shirvan and others) were also put into circulation on the territory of Karabakh khanate.

Qajars, Fatali shah, 1244 AH, sahibkran, silver

After forming new Turkic dynasty in Southern Azerbaijan in Iran by Fatali Shah, (1211-1250) Karabakh khanate the state of Qajars, as well as some other khanates like Ganja, Sheki of Northern Azerbaijan went under influence of this state, and as a consequence on that territories the silver coins of Qajars were put into circulation. Considering this issue a chronicler Adigozal bek writes on the issue of silver coins entitled “sahibkran”, in Panakhabad on behalf of Fatali shah, that it equals to 30 Russian kopeika. Such coins weighting 7 gr of nominal value of 1000 copper dinars, were also stamped in Ganja, Sheki, were circulating along with local coins.

Coins of the Karabakh khanate are of huge importance not only for the Karabakh khanate, but also for all Azerbaijan. It is impossible to overestimate the significance of these metallic relics of Azerbaijani numismatics, especially nowadays when the Armenian chauvinism, with the tacit approval of certain powers, started to claim these native Azerbaijani lands of Daglig Karabakh (I can’t understand why we do allow the foreigners to call this geographical unit on Russian-manner Nagorny. Let’s remind cases with names of Tallin-Tallinn, Tiflis-Tbilisi).

By and large, high-grade and heavy panakhabadis have left deep marks in history of Azerbaijani numismatics, as undeniable proofs of emerging political and economic basis of the Azerbaijani statehood during the period of Karabakh khanate. At the same time the coins confirm the role and place of Panakh-khan who managed to create in circumstances of political fragmentation and tearing the country feuds, the strong and large state extending during its heyday far beyond the territories called habitually by many people “Nagorny Karabakh”.

Ali Rajabli, Doctor of History

"İRS" Magazine

Subscribe to Trend in Google News! Subscribe
Turkey shares data on number of cars transshipped via local ports in 9M2021
Turkey shares data on number of cars transshipped via local ports in 9M2021
Turkey unveils number of ships received at local ports in September
Turkey unveils number of ships received at local ports in September
Turkey reveals its total cargo traffic for 9M2021
Turkey reveals its total cargo traffic for 9M2021
Loading Bars
Latest
Russia planning several new business visits to Azerbaijan by year-end - official
Russian company to implement micro-mobile transport project in Baku
First Lady Mehriban Aliyeva shares Instagram post with footage from trip with President Ilham Aliyev to Zangilan (VIDEO)
Azerbaijan Investment Holding, Kazakhstan National Welfare Fund sign memorandum of co-op
SOFAZ’s revenues from profitable oil and gas sale up
Executive Power of Azerbaijan’s Tovuz district opens tender for road repairs
Kazakhstan, Russia discuss gas supply issues
Russian company may set up 'smart' bus stops in Azerbaijan's liberated lands
Azerbaijan publishes updated list of servicemen martyred during second Karabakh war
IBF VP talks growing interest of investors in Azerbaijan's liberated lands (VIDEO)
SOFAZ sees increase in budget revenues
Uzbekistan's GDP growth in 9M2021 sparks promising forecast
Azerbaijan developing preliminary conceptual design of railway route to liberated Kalbajar (PHOTO)
Goldman Sachs, Freshfields working on possible Porsche IPO
Kazakhstan to liquidate emergency wells in several regions
Large-amount loans issued in Iran's services sector
Azerbaijan, Russia talk cooperation opportunities in insurance sector
Azerbaijan records surplus in state budget
Azerbaijan's Sumgayit Technologies Park, Alat FEZ sign MoU on strategic co-op
Azerbaijan shares data on number of vaccinated citizens
Head of EU delegation talks financial aid to Azerbaijan, following end of Karabakh war
U.S. weekly jobless claims drop to 19-month low
Uzbek Central Bank publishes data on country's gold, currency reserves
Trade turnover between Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan grows sharply
FIMI buys Ashot Ashkelon stake from Elbit Systems for $88m
Azerbaijan confirms 2,005 more COVID-19 cases, 1,011 recoveries
Uzbek Central Bank reveals data on total liabilities of banks
Iran sees decrease in load/unload operations in Astara port
Kremlin hopes for EU certification of Russia's vaccine
Bahar Azadi gold coin price begins to rise in Iran
India enters 100-crore vaccine club to fight Covid, PM Modi says nation scripts history
Hungarian University Forum and alumni meeting in Baku
Central Bank of Iran shares data on loans issued for trade sector
Turkmenistan doubles greenhouse tomato exports to Russia
Turkey's position on opening Zangezur corridor - unchanged – President Erdogan
Iran reveals COVID-19 data for October 21
Georgia shares data on its top goods exported to Russia
Iran sees increase of cargo loading/unloading at its Charak port
Turkish President to attend opening of Azerbaijan’s Fuzuli International Airport
India offered humanitarian assistance to Afghans, Taliban say after 2nd meeting
'Turkic World' project aims to meet information demand - Turkish official
South Pars field revenues account for over half of Iran's state budget
Turkmenistan looks to launch new project jointly with UNDP, WB
Central Bank of Iran announces amount of loans issued in housing, construction sector
Turkmenistan interested in political stability, security in Afghanistan – Deputy FM
Iran’s CBI reveals amount of loans issued for industrial and mining sectors
India achieves the major milestone of ‘one billion’ vaccinations
Volume of loaded/unloaded cargo in Iran’s Fereidoonkenar port down
Ruling parties of Azerbaijan, Turkey to hold meeting
Iran records increase in exports to Uzbekistan
Iranian president to visit Ardabil Province on border with Azerbaijan
Uzbekistan reveals total assets for banks with/without state share
Every martyr will live forever in hearts of Azerbaijani people - President Ilham Aliyev
SOCAR discloses oil transportation volume via Baku-Supsa
Our people did not bow down during occupation, did not forget about their native lands - Azerbaijani president
Georgia-Russia trade turnover increases in 9M2021
Azerbaijan's military units in Kalbajar, Lachin undergo inspection amid coming winter (PHOTO/VIDEO)
Georgia shares data on COVID-19 cases for October 21
SOCAR’s capital investment plan fulfilled by over 63%
SOCAR reveals volume of electricity production, consumption
Iranian currency rates for October 21
Tesla's German plant hits snag as public consultation repeated
Iranian startup companies receive more loans from local banks
Activities in Iran’s Genaveh port increase
Egypt economy forecast to grow 5.1% in year to June, 5.5% in 2022/23
Pfizer vaccine very effective against Delta variant in adolescents in Israel
Iranians detained in Azerbaijan due to falsified of customs documents sent back to Iran
Exports of Iran to Tajikistan soar
Iran begins new round of power plant overhaul operations
Zangilan will become transport and logistical center of our country - President Aliyev
SOCAR fulfills oil refining plan by over 103%
Gas could lose market share to coal this winter
Russia sees record high of 36,339 daily COVID-19 cases, crisis center says
Does Europe have enough gas stocks to get through winter?
Azerbaijan considering proposals for building new modern gas-turbine power plant
Azerbaijan announces time of commissioning floating solar power plant
Azerbaijan to develop atlas of renewable energy potential
Kazakhstan eyes attracting investments in processing industry
Turkey shares data on number of cars transshipped via local ports in 9M2021
Iran to use alternative fuel for power plants
Iran shares data on grain imports from Russia
Azerbaijan updates on renewable energy projects with ACWA Power, Masdar
Iran looking to expand export to neighboring countries - President Raisi
Amount of loans issued by Iranian banks continue to grow
Iran provides several loans in agricultural sector
Oil mixed, but solid U.S. demand underpins sentiment
1 dead, 33 injured in restaurant explosion in northeast China
Iran, Kazakhstan urged to set out a new framework for bilateral ties
Number of beneficiaries receiving subsistence allowance increases in Georgia
ADB to prioritize Uzbekistan’s transformation to market-based economy through reforms (Exclusive)
COVID-19: New cases slightly up in Kazakhstan
India for including TRIPS waiver proposal in WTO’s response package
U.S. FDA clears Moderna, J&J COVID-19 boosters, backs use of different vaccine for boost
India plans to send 50,000 MT of wheat, medical aid to Afghanistan: Report
17 killed in car crash in Egypt
WHO Director General has lauded India's Covid vaccination efforts: Health Minister
Canada to unveil vaccine passport plans Thursday
Covaxin instilled self-confidence: ICMR chief
India: Adani Ports to shun cargo from Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran
U.S. readies plan to vaccinate kids ages 5-11 against COVID-19
All news