( AP ) - The attack a decade ago was stunning, and is still recalled with horror: Islamic militants with knives and automatic weapons killed 58 foreign tourists - mainly Germans, Swiss and Japanese - at one of Egypt's most popular pharaonic temples. Some of the bodies were mutilated.
The Nov. 17, 1997, massacre at Hatshepsut temple in Luxor turned out to be the last gasp in the wave of Islamic militant violence that struck Egypt in the 1990s.
The 10th anniversary of the attack highlights the changes in Egypt since then - both in tourism and terrorism.
Over the years, the jailed leaders of the once-robust Islamic rebellion have called for an end to the violence after Egyptian security forces crushed the two main militant groups of the 1990s, Islamic Jihad and the Gamaa Islamiya.
Sayed Imam, a jailed ideologue of radical Islam, on Sunday is publishing "Revisions," a book in which he recants his past calls for the forceful overthrow of Arab governments seen as infidels.
The Nile Valley, once the heartland of violence, has not seen a major attack since the Hatshepsut slayings. But the nature of terrorism has now shifted: Since 2004, Egypt saw a string of deadly bombings on Red Sea beach resorts in the Sinai Peninsula that killed 121 people, including many tourists.
Egypt says those attacks were allegedly carried out by Sinai Bedouin radicalized by Palestinian militants. But Israeli and some Western analysts have warned that al-Qaida sympathizers may have had a role, raising worries of international terrorism in the country.
But between 1997 and the Sinai attacks, Egypt's vital tourism industry has changed as well, becoming more varied and resilient. The Hatshepsut massacre sparked a rethinking of Egypt's tourism strategy, pushing authorities to promote Red Sea resorts, far from the Nile Valley temples. Now tourists spend more time at beaches, with day trips to the pharaonic sites.
At the same time, tourists from around the world have become less frightened of terrorism after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks in the U.S. Within weeks of each attack in the Sinai, tourists returned to the resorts, which are now doing as good a business as ever. In 2006, Egypt earned $8.7 million from tourism and is hoping to reach $14 billion by 2011.
The quick rebound is a stark contrast to the fate of Luxor, where tourism took years to fully recover from the Hatshepsut bloodshed.
Mostafa Wazery, the director of Luxor's Valley of the Kings, remembers that day well. He was across the Nile working at the Karnak temple when the news came.
"It was a big disaster, especially for the Egyptians living in the Luxor. They were running to the hospital to donate their blood," he recalled. "They felt that one of their own family members had died."
The militants slipped in among the tourists at the temple in the Valley of the Queens and opened fire, chasing some of their victims and mutilating bodies before fleeing into the nearby mountains, where they were later killed by police.
"It took three years for it (tourism) to wake up," said Mohammed Soliman, who with his father, has run the Amon Hotel for 17 years. The small guest house on Luxor's west bank is just minutes from the massacre site.
Even before the killings, the main militant groups were reeling from a harsh government crackdown. In July 1997, jailed leaders of the Gamaa Islamiya declared their willingness for a truce. "That was the real turning point," said Diaa Rashwan, an Egyptian expert on Islamic movements.
The Luxor attack was claimed by Gamaa Islamiya, apparently a splinter faction of the group trying to continue its attacks. But in the years since, Gamaa leaders issued calls on their followers to end their campaign.
Now comes the new book by Imam, of the Islamic Jihad group. His "Essential Guide for Preparation," which sought to justify armed struggle against "infidel" governments, was required reading for the mujahedeen of Afghanistan in the 1980s and was influential among the current leaders of al-Qaida. Imam was arrested in Yemen in 2001 and extradited to Egypt in 2004.
Egypt is hoping his "Revisions" will diminish support for militancy. But al-Qaida leaders have dismissed similar recantations as being forced on imprisoned militants.
Yasser el-Sirri, an Egyptian fundamentalist living in exile in London, said radicals in Egypt have only gone underground, shifting from organized groups to more fragmented ones.
" Egypt might be witnessing a period of calm, but it's just temporary," said el-Sirri, who faces two death sentences in Egypt for alleged involvement in militant groups.