Voters in Kyrgyzstan are going to the polls to choose new MPs in a general election that could bring to an end two years of political upheaval.
President Kurmanbek Bakiyev called the vote after overhauling the constitution and launching his own party, Ak Zhol, which has been widely tipped to win.
Critics say the poll and constitutional changes are a power-grab and accuse him of moving towards authoritarianism.
His supporters argue that the new system is fairer and more democratic.
Polling stations opened at 0800 (0200GMT) and will close at 2000 (1400GMT), with preliminary results expected on Monday.
The election is the first parliamentary vote since 2005, when allegations of a rigged ballot led to mass protests that drove President Askar Akayev from power.
Opposition parties have already accused Mr Bakiyev of foul play, saying their activists have been intimidated and local government officials have been pressurised into voting for Ak Zhol.
Almazbek Atambayev, leader of the Social Democratic Party, which is expected to be the main opposition, said there would "certainly be fraud".
"We will not watch idly in case of lawlessness... a number of parties are preparing protests," he said.
But the president has pledged that "all will be honest" with the vote in the former Soviet republic, which has a reputation for being the most politically open country in the Central Asia region.
Kyrgyzstan has suffered political upheaval since 2005, when Mr Akayev fled to Russia.
Mr Bakiyev led the street protests against Mr Akayev, but he has suffered growing unrest during his own period in office.
Claims of cronyism and of failure to fight corruption led to mass protests in the streets of the capital, Bishkek, earlier this year.