On Wednesday, Brazil's Senate is debating whether the president should face an impeachment trial, in which case she would immediately be suspended from her job for up to six months.
On Tuesday, Brazil's Attorney General Eduardo Cardozo asked the Supreme Court to annul impeachment proceedings against Rousseff.
Supreme Court Minister Teori Zavascki ruled that the court has no jurisdiction to examine issues related to the president's prosecution for criminal responsibility.
Brazil's leader has been facing rising discontent over the country's struggling economy and a major corruption scandal in the state-owned energy corporation Petrobras. She headed the company between 2003 and 2010, the period during which most of the corruption reportedly took place.
On April 17, two-thirds of lawmakers in the lower house of the Brazil's parliament voted in favor of impeaching Rousseff.