LAW ON MIGRANTS NEEDED
As of the end of 2005 the number of international migrants worldwide reached 191. 6 per 10 migrants reside in developed countries, while 1 per 5 in the United States, according relevant UN report. A list of 20 countries with high number of international migrants in 2005 is headed by the United States, which is followed by Russia. In 2005 Russia has 12 million migrants, while the United States 38.4 million. It is 6.4% and 20% of all migrants worldwide respectively.
Upon collapse of the unified Soviet area the economic shocks following each other loss of jobs, delay payment of wages, hyper-inflation destroying the savings, destruction of social support system made many people leave the country in search of money to the neighboring countries, in particular Russia.
As result the number of Azerbaijanis residing in Moscow rose 4.6% over the past 13 years. in accordance with the general census of the Russian capital, in this period the number of Armenian residing in Moscow rose 2.4 times, while Georgians 2.5 times. Azerbaijanis reside mainly in the center of Moscow. As of official data, there are 124,000 Armenians. 93,000 Azerbaijanis and 54,000 Georgians in the Russian capital.
However, the experts assure that the official data do not coincide to the reality, as the real figures are considerably higher. In compliance with the official statistics, 621,000 Azerbaijanis reside in Russia. 151,000 of them are Russian citizens and around 470,000 arrived in the country to earn their living.
According to Nazim Ibrahimov, the chairman of the State Committee on work with Azerbaijanis residing abroad, at present over 50 million Azerbaijanis reside worldwide. 8 million of Azerbaijanis live in Azerbaijan, 30 million - in Iran, 2.5 million in Russia, 1.5 million in the United States, 500,000 in Ukraine, 350,000 in France, 400,000 in Germany and other countries. Different reasons cause emigration of Azerbaijanis, including the political, ethnic, economic, military actions, natural calamities, religious factors. However, the share of labor migrants also grew.
The emigration of some 2.5-3 million able people from the country and aging of the remaining population evolves serious problem for the public budget. The emigration of qualified employees can seriously break the perspectives of their countries. On the hand the out flow of citizens to other countries in search of jobs considerably decreases the unemployment ratio, relaxes social tension and employment problem. However, thousands of migrants from Azerbaijan working abroad send money earned to their families. The data on such families are not correct yet, but it is said that 25% of Azerbaijani families depend on money sent from Russia. This process increases financial stability of such families.
Two years ago the General Director of the Center on International Sociological and Marketing Researches (ISOMAR), Liliya Kazakova wrote in Moskovskaya Pravda newspaper that every year from 5 to 8 billion dollars was delivered from Russia to Azerbaijan. This figure seemed too exaggerated for local experts. They grounded their doubts with a tendency of rise in move of migrants families to Russia and respectively spending of money there.
If to view the situation from the social aspect, the migrants arriving in Russian actually balance the demographic situation in the country. Thus, the Russian population cut in 2005 680,000 people. The major reason is natural mortality. The migration rise covers the natural death only by 10%. The country is working over its migration attractiveness.
The governments of the host countries state that the number of migrants should coincide with the need of national economy and nor exceed the interests of local employees. The immigrants frequently implement the work which American or Russians seem not prestigious: they are mainly involved in agriculture and service. Migrants from Azerbaijan to Russia, along with trade, are involved in driving and harvesting in agriculture. Emigrants in most cases found jobs with low salaries per country ratio. However, there are also cases when due to low price of migrants labor the local citizens turn out needless.
This situation, however, threatens Azerbaijan. Experts note that the economic development of Azerbaijan, foreign investments in the countrys economy strengthened the flow of migrants. Only the officially registered able migrants comprised approximately 2000 people the country in 2005. The number of illegal migrants in the country is supplemented by citizens of neighboring Georgia, Chechnya and Afghanistan. The illegal migrants are also met in the local markets, where those from India and Pakistan, Vietnam and Indonesia, as well as citizens of Iraq, Iran and Turkey trade. The flow of Iranian migrants has increased considerably following the strengthening of the tension between Iran and the United States and this tendency will get strengthened as the rumors of possible US attacks on Iran boost.
Thus, there is a need for the adoption of the law on Migrants. A migration service established at the Interior Ministry in 2005 has started functioning fully since May 2006. This organization carries out control over the activities of foreigners residing in Azerbaijan, deportation of foreigners to their countries within the framework of the law incase of revealing any illegal fact in their actions. A problem with illegal migration of Azerbaijani citizens and resident of other countries, using our country as transit place, is more actual today for Azerbaijan, in particular amid difficult geopolitical cobwebs in the South Caucasus region.