In Germany, 11 men between the ages of 36 and 41 were detained in the states of Bavaria, Hesse, North-Rhine Westphalia and Baden-Württemberg, Germany's Federal Criminal Police Office (BKA) said in a statement.
German authorities said the men were suspected of blackmail and money laundering, and that the detentions were carried out at the request of Italian authorities.
The BKA added that anti-mafia police in Italy detained another 160 people in the joint operation. Italian authorities said they also seized some €50 million ($60 million) worth of property.
The list of charges facing the suspects in Italy ranges from attempted murder to illegal possession of firearms to illegal waste transportation.
The Farao-Marincola clan, the 'Ndrangheta crime network that was targeted in Tuesday's raids, is believed to have infiltrated local businesses in the town of Ciro, located in the southern region of Calabria, Italy.
Around Ciro, the suspects were involved in local bakeries, fishing, funeral services and waste recycling. In Germany, they controlled the supply of pizza ingredients and wine to local Italian restaurants.
"They controlled all the economic activity in entire towns," said Italian prosecutor Nicola Gratteri. "It concerned all commercial activity and obviously political power as well."