The strong and relatively shallow quake that struck at 0107 GMT was centred 48 kilometres (30 miles) west-northwest of the town of Polis on the Mediterranean island, the USGS said.
The tremor was felt across Cyprus and around the region with reports from as far away as Turkey, Israel and Lebanon, according to the USGS.
But there was a low likelihood of casualties and damage from the quake, it said in a preliminary assessment.
The European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre measured the tremor at 6.5 magnitude at a depth of 51 km.
Cyprus lies in a secondary earthquake-prone zone, but tremors of such magnitude are uncommon.
The biggest quake in recent years was a magnitude 6.8 in 1996, which killed two people in Paphos along the west coast.
In 1953, a 6.3-magnitude quake killed 40 people and destroyed hundreds of homes, mostly in the Paphos region.